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From articles published since 2022.

Review article
How to write an original article in medicine and medical science
Gwansuk Kang, Sung Eun Kim
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(2):96-101.   Published online June 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.105
  • 2,192 View
  • 66 Download
  • 6 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Excellent research in the fields of medicine and medical science can advance the field and contribute to human health improvement. In this aspect, research is important. However, if researchers do not publish their research, their efforts cannot benefit anyone. To make a difference, researchers must disseminate their results and communicate their opinions. One way to do this is by publishing their research. Therefore, academic writing is an essential skill for researchers. However, preparing a manuscript is not an easy task, and it is difficult to write well. Following a structure may be helpful for researchers. For example, the standard structure of medical and medical science articles includes the following sections: introduction, methods, results, and discussion (IMRAD). The purpose of this review is to present an introduction for researchers, especially novices, on how to write an original article in the field of medicine and medical science. Therefore, we discuss how to prepare and write a research manuscript for publication, using the IMRAD structure. We also included specific tips for writing manuscripts in medicine and medical science.

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  • Predicting Safe Liver Resection Volume for Major Hepatectomy Using Artificial Intelligence
    Chol Min Kang, Hyung June Ku, Hyung Hwan Moon, Seong-Eun Kim, Ji Hoon Jo, Young Il Choi, Dong Hoon Shin
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(2): 381.     CrossRef
  • Troponin I and D-dimer levels as triaging biomarkers to distinguish acute pulmonary thromboembolism from myocardial infarction
    Soo-Jin Kim, Moo Hyun Kim, Kwang Min Lee, Jin Woo Lee, Young Shin Cha, Da Eun Koh, Joo Yeong Hwang, Jong Sung Park
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 252.     CrossRef
  • Prevention of myopia progression using orthokeratology
    Stephanie Suzanne S. Garcia, Changzoo Kim
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 231.     CrossRef
  • Basic knowledge of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    Jung Wook Lee
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 241.     CrossRef
  • How does quiz activity affect summative assessment outcomes? An analysis of three consecutive years’ data on self-directed learning
    Chi Eun Oh, Hyunyong Hwang
    Kosin Medical Journal.2022; 37(3): 228.     CrossRef
  • The effects of rebamipide, sucralfate, and rifaximin against inflammation and apoptosis in radiation-induced murine intestinal injury
    Won Moon, Sangwook Lim, Yeonsoon Jung, Yuk Moon Heo, Seun Ja Park, Moo In Park, Sung Eun Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Kyoungwon Jung
    Kosin Medical Journal.2022; 37(4): 320.     CrossRef
Original article
New approach to learning medical procedures using a smartphone and the Moodle platform to facilitate assessments and written feedback
Sang-Shin Lee, Haeyoung Lee, Hyunyong Hwang
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(1):75-82.   Published online March 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.010
  • 2,456 View
  • 98 Download
  • 5 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
To overcome communication obstacles between medical students and trainers, we designed serial learning activities utilizing a smartphone and web-based instruction (WBI) on the Moodle platform to provide clear and retrievable trainer feedback to students on an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) item.
Methods
We evaluated students’ learning achievement and satisfaction with the new learning tool. A total of 80 fourth-year medical students participated. They installed the Moodle app (the WBI platform) on their smartphones and practiced an endotracheal suction procedure on a medical simulation mannequin while being evaluated by a trainer regarding competence in clinical skills on the smartphone app. Students’ competency was evaluated by comparing the scores between the formative assessment and the summative assessment. The degree of satisfaction and usefulness for the smartphone and WBI system were analyzed.
Results
The means (standard deviations, SDs) of the formative and summative assessments were 8.80 (2.53) and 14.24 (1.97) out of a total of 17 points, respectively, reflecting a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The degree of satisfaction and perceived usefulness of the smartphone app and WBI system were excellent, with means (SDs) of 4.60 (0.58), and 4.60 (0.65), respectively.
Conclusion
We believe that the learning process using a smartphone and the Moodle platform offers good guidance for OSCE skill development because trainers’ written feedback is recorded online and is retrievable at all times, enabling students to build and maintain competency through frequent feedback review.

Citations

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  • Faculty development: the need to ensure educational excellence and health care quality
    Hyekyung Shin, Min-Jeong Kim
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(1): 4.     CrossRef
  • Is It Time to Revise the Competency-Based Assessment? Objective Structured Clinical Examination and Technology Integration
    Haniye Mastour, Nazanin Shamaeian Razavi
    Shiraz E-Medical Journal.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Do we need Moodle in medical education? A review of its impact and utility
    Seri Jeong, Hyunyong Hwang
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(3): 159.     CrossRef
  • The effectiveness of Moodle's “Lesson” feature in pre-learning about arterial puncture and blood transfusion procedures
    Haeyoung Lee, Sang-Shin Lee, Hyunyong Hwang
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 278.     CrossRef
  • How does quiz activity affect summative assessment outcomes? An analysis of three consecutive years’ data on self-directed learning
    Chi Eun Oh, Hyunyong Hwang
    Kosin Medical Journal.2022; 37(3): 228.     CrossRef
Review articles
How to write case reports in medicine
Sung Il Im
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(2):102-106.   Published online June 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.109
  • 1,867 View
  • 76 Download
  • 4 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Medical research has become an important part of providing care to patients. Case reports published in medical journals can communicate information to the medical community about rare or unreported features, conditions, complications, or interventions. Case reports are generally short, focusing on key components such as a summary and introduction, case presentation, and discussion. Authors now have access to free, continuously updated case reports of different types from multiple journals. This review introduces the process and mechanisms for how and when to prepare a case report. We briefly review the editorial process of each of these complementary journals, along with author anecdotes, hoping to inspire authors to write and continue writing case reports; and discusses the essentials of a case report, aiming to provide guidelines for improving medical writing skills.

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  • A Case of Early Malignant Change from Neurofibroma to Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor
    Poo Reum Kang, Yeong Joon Kim, Sun Ju Oh, Hyoung Shin Lee
    Korean Society for Head and Neck Oncology.2023; 39(2): 45.     CrossRef
  • Gastric Adenocarcinoma of Fundic-gland Type Diagnosed and Treated by Endoscopic Mucosal Resection
    Sung Eun Kim, Seun Ja Park, Moo In Park, Won Moon, Jae Hyun Kim, Kyoungwon Jung, Bang Ju Kim, Hee Kyung Chang
    Journal of Digestive Cancer Research.2023; 11(3): 165.     CrossRef
  • Perioperative cutaneous complications in an elderly patient due to inappropriate use of a forced-air warming device and underbody blanket: a case report
    Myounghun Kim, Soo Jee Lee, Beomseok Choi, Geunho Lee, Seunghee Ki
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 288.     CrossRef
  • Selective adjuvant radiation therapy for distant lymph node metastasis in patients with stage 4B epithelial ovarian cancer: a case series
    Eun Taeg Kim, Seung Yeon Oh, Sun Young Ma, Tae Hwa Lee, Won Gyu Kim
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 293.     CrossRef
How to conduct well-designed clinical research
Da Jung Kim, Song Yi Kil, Jongwon Son, Ho Sup Lee
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(3):187-191.   Published online September 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.122
  • 1,814 View
  • 55 Download
  • 3 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Clinicians and healthcare decision-makers conduct their clinical practice based on the results of clinical trials. However, some health problems remain unresolved; in such cases, further research is required. To ensure reliable research results, it is important to understand the study design and conduct well-designed clinical trials. Many study designs can be chosen within the two broad categories of observational and interventional. Clinical studies have a variety of designs, including case series, case-control, cross-sectional, and prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Well-designed clinical studies can clarify important differences between treatment options and provide data on long-term drug efficacy and safety. Interpreting the results of clinical trials can be difficult because weaknesses in research design, data collection methods, analytic methods, and reporting can compromise their value and usefulness. However, although randomized controlled trials are limited owing to ethical and practical issues, they are optimal for investigating the effects of therapy and establishing causality. Here we present an overview of different clinical research designs and review their advantages and limitations.

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  • Basic knowledge of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    Jung Wook Lee
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 241.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of automated calibration and quality control processes using the Aptio total laboratory automation system
    Namhee Kim, Yein Kim, Jeongeun Park, Jungsoo Choi, Hyunyong Hwang
    Kosin Medical Journal.2022; 37(4): 342.     CrossRef
  • The effects of rebamipide, sucralfate, and rifaximin against inflammation and apoptosis in radiation-induced murine intestinal injury
    Won Moon, Sangwook Lim, Yeonsoon Jung, Yuk Moon Heo, Seun Ja Park, Moo In Park, Sung Eun Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Kyoungwon Jung
    Kosin Medical Journal.2022; 37(4): 320.     CrossRef
Ethical issues in clinical research and publication
Hyoung Shin Lee
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(4):278-282.   Published online December 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.132
  • 2,269 View
  • 106 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Clinical research including human participants should be based on truth, demonstrate scientific integrity, and follow ethical standards and guidelines to protect study participants. The publication of clinical research should be transparent and adhere to strict criteria for authorship. A thorough understanding and knowledge of ethical issues will limit investigator misconduct in clinical research and publication. In this article, basic ethical issues in clinical research and publication are reviewed and summarized based on recent guidelines.

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  • Clinical outcomes of prostate artery embolization for management of benign prostate hyperplasia (prostate larger than 100 mL) with or without hematuria
    Soodong Kim
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 259.     CrossRef
  • Basic knowledge of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    Jung Wook Lee
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 241.     CrossRef
Original articles
How does quiz activity affect summative assessment outcomes? An analysis of three consecutive years’ data on self-directed learning
Chi Eun Oh, Hyunyong Hwang
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(3):228-235.   Published online September 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.118
  • 1,151 View
  • 47 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
We investigated how quiz activities can improve summative assessment outcomes by analyzing the relationship between them.
Methods
We used 217 first-year medical students’ medical informatics data from 3 consecutive years. We analyzed summative assessment outcomes between quiz completion and incompletion groups, one-time and multiple-time quiz learning groups, and three combined comparisons between subgroups of quiz learning activity frequencies: 1 versus 2, 3, 4, and 6 (group 1), 1 and 2 versus 3, 4, and 6 (group 2), and 1, 2, and 3 versus 4 and 6 (group 3). We then analyzed correlations between the final quiz scores and summative assessment outcomes.
Results
The summative assessment means for students who completed quizzes and those who did not were 87.16±8.73 and 83.22±8.31, respectively (p=0.001). The means for the one-time and multiple-time quiz learning groups were 86.54±8.94 and 88.71±8.10, respectively (p=0.223). The means for combined subgroups were not significantly different between groups (p>0.05), although a statistically significant increasing trend was found from groups 1 to 3 (0.223>0.203>0.075 using the t-test and 0.225>0.150>0.067 using the Mann-Whitney test, respectively). Summative assessment scores were not significantly correlated with quiz scores (r=0.115, p=0.213).
Conclusions
Quizzes helped students who used self-directed learning obtain better summative assessment outcomes. Formative quizzes presumably did not provide students with direct knowledge, but showed them their weak points and motivated them to work on areas where their knowledge was insufficient.

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  • Do we need Moodle in medical education? A review of its impact and utility
    Seri Jeong, Hyunyong Hwang
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(3): 159.     CrossRef
  • The effectiveness of Moodle's “Lesson” feature in pre-learning about arterial puncture and blood transfusion procedures
    Haeyoung Lee, Sang-Shin Lee, Hyunyong Hwang
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 278.     CrossRef
Effectiveness of prophylactic calcium and vitamin D supplementation for preventing post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia: a meta-analysis
Hyeyeon Moon, Ju Won Seok, Keunyoung Kim, Hye Young Kim, Mi Kyoung Park, In Joo Kim, Kyoungjune Pak, Sunghwan Suh
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(3):213-219.   Published online August 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.101
  • 1,816 View
  • 90 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Postsurgical hypocalcemia is the most common and troublesome consequence of thyroidectomy. We investigated the potential role of routine calcium or vitamin D supplementation in preventing postsurgical hypocalcemia.
Methods
We searched MEDLINE and Embase for English-language publications using the keywords “calcium,” “vitamin D,” and “thyroid cancer.” The primary outcome was any postoperative hypocalcemia, and the secondary outcome was symptomatic hypocalcemia.
Results
Four studies that included 381 patients were eligible for this meta-analysis. A random-effects model showed no significant difference in the occurrence of hypocalcemia between calcium/vitamin D treatment and placebo/no treatment. However, the occurrence of symptomatic hypocalcemia was lower in patients with calcium/vitamin D treatment. In the combined results, preoperative calcium and vitamin D supplementation were associated with a reduced incidence of symptomatic hypocalcemia.
Conclusions
Our findings support the use of preoperative calcium and vitamin D supplementation in conjunction with routine postsurgical supplementation for patients after total thyroidectomy.

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  • Preoperative Vitamin D and Calcium Administration in Patients Undergoing Thyroidectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    Mohammed Alhakami, Ghassan B. Lajdam, Abdullah A. Ghaddaf, Sarah Alayoubi, Shaden Alhelali, Mohammad Alshareef, Jabir Alharbi
    OTO Open.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Is there enough evidence to recommend preoperative calcium and vitamin D in patients who undergo total thyroidectomy?
    Hyoung Shin Lee
    Kosin Medical Journal.2022; 37(3): 173.     CrossRef
STAT3 inhibition decreases ATP-induced MUC8 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells
Cheol Hong Kim, Kyoung Seob Song
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(2):134-139.   Published online June 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.102
  • 1,217 View
  • 11 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Contact between the human pulmonary system and bacteria, viruses, or other pathogens can induce airway diseases. Although pathogen-induced mucus oversecretion and hyperproduction are frequently observed in the human respiratory tract, the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced mucus hypersecretion and overproduction remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological signaling mechanism of ATP-induced MUC8 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells.
Methods
Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, a cytokine array, and a Ca2+ concentration assay were performed to investigate the ATP/P2Y2-induced MUC8 gene expression levels in human airway epithelial cells.
Results
The ATP/P2Y2 complex robustly secreted interleukin (IL)-6 in a time-dependent manner, whereas siRNA-P2Y2 did not. Moreover, ATP/P2Y2 induced MUC8 gene expression. IL-6 secreted by ATP strongly elevated ATP/P2Y2-induced MUC8 gene expression compared to ATP/P2Y2. Interestingly, a specific STAT3 inhibitor, 5,15-DPP, dramatically inhibited ATP/P2Y2/IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and resulted in an approximately 5-fold decrease in MUC8 gene expression.
Conclusions
We showed that IL-6-activated STAT6 is essential for ATP/P2Y2-induced MUC8 gene expression as part of inflammatory signaling by cytokines during airway inflammation. Our results provide a new molecular understanding of the signaling mechanism of MUC8 gene expression during airway inflammation.

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  • Inhibition of Urban Particulate Matter-Induced Airway Inflammation by RIPK3 through the Regulation of Tight Junction Protein Production
    Sun-Hee Park, Hyun-Chae Lee, Hye Min Jeong, Jeong-Sang Lee, Hee-Jae Cha, Cheol Hong Kim, Jeongtae Kim, Kyoung Seob Song
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(17): 13320.     CrossRef
  • PDZ Peptide of the ZO-1 Protein Significantly Increases UTP-Induced MUC8 Anti-Inflammatory Mucin Overproduction in Human Airway Epithelial Cells
    Han Seo, Hyun-Chae Lee, Ki Chul Lee, Doosik Kim, Jiwook Kim, Donghee Kang, Hyung-Joo Chung, Hee-Jae Cha, Jeongtae Kim, Kyoung Seob Song
    Molecules and Cells.2023; 46(11): 700.     CrossRef
Troponin I and D-dimer levels as triaging biomarkers to distinguish acute pulmonary thromboembolism from myocardial infarction
Soo-Jin Kim, Moo Hyun Kim, Kwang Min Lee, Jin Woo Lee, Young Shin Cha, Da Eun Koh, Joo Yeong Hwang, Jong Sung Park
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(4):252-258.   Published online December 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.133
  • 323 View
  • 11 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE) is often confused with myocardial infarction. Previous studies have shown that patients with APTE exhibit lower initial and peak cardiac troponin I (CTI) levels, but higher D-dimer (DD) levels, than patients with myocardial infarction. The present study aimed to reaffirm the tree model algorithm using an entirely new set of data.
Methods
We reviewed retrospective clinical and laboratory data from patients who were diagnosed with APTE or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) between 2015 and 2016. Subjects who were not classified with a diagnosis or did not have their CTI or DD levels assessed were excluded. We categorized patients according to the previous algorithm and compared the outcomes with the previous test dataset.
Results
The analysis involved data from 156 patients with APTE and 363 patients with NSTEMI. In the validation data set, the APTE group showed higher initial DD levels (9.80±10.84 μg/mL) and lower initial CTI levels (0.17±0.54 μg/mL) than the NSTEMI group. The accuracy rate for the test dataset and the validation set were similar. The test set accuracy rate was 91.0%, while the accuracy rate in the validation set improved to 88.6%.
Conclusions
Patients with APTE exhibited lower initial and peak CTI levels, but higher DD levels than NSTEMI patients. The accuracy rate estimates were similar between the test set obtained from the tree model algorithm and the validation set. The study findings demonstrate that the assessment of cardiac biomarkers can be useful for differentiating between APTE and NSTEMI.

Citations

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  • The old biomarkers you know are still useful: D-dimer and troponin I
    Sanghyun Lee
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 229.     CrossRef
Review article
Do we need Moodle in medical education? A review of its impact and utility
Seri Jeong, Hyunyong Hwang
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(3):159-168.   Published online September 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.139
  • 1,747 View
  • 77 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Various learning management systems (LMSs) are available to facilitate the development, management, and distribution of digital resources for both face-to-face and online instruction. In recent decades, these methods have shown potential for greater efficiency compared to traditional "chalk and talk" approaches. Additionally, they have paved the way for the establishment of ubiquitous learning environments, marking a new era in education. In a trend accelerated by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, LMSs have been increasingly adopted to overcome the restrictions inherent to in-person education. In medical education, LMSs such as Moodle, Canvas, Blackboard Learn, and others have been introduced and used to support teaching, learning, and assessment activities. Of these, Moodle stands out as the most popular choice for many medical schools and institutions, primarily due to its flexibility, functionality, and user-friendliness. The learning environment is gradually transforming from traditional in-person teaching to a hybrid educational approach, driven by the need to fulfill diverse educational demands. Numerous research studies have examined the usability of Moodle in medical education, demonstrating its effectiveness in addressing challenges related to adaptive personalized learning, collaborative learning, blended learning, and more. Consequently, Moodle has emerged as a valuable solution for medical educators seeking a versatile and robust platform to enhance their teaching methodologies. The present review focuses on the practical utilization of Moodle in medical education and the advantages it offers to this field.

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  • The effectiveness of Moodle's “Lesson” feature in pre-learning about arterial puncture and blood transfusion procedures
    Haeyoung Lee, Sang-Shin Lee, Hyunyong Hwang
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 278.     CrossRef
Original article
Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate Nrf2 expression and attenuate apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in a rat model of cyclosporine-induced nephropathy
Ji Young Lee, Young Ki Son, Mi Hwa Lee, Su Mi Lee, Seong Eun Kim, Won Suk An
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(3):184-192.   Published online July 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.112
  • 1,149 View
  • 31 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced kidney injury is characterized by renal impairment with inflammatory cell infiltrations, apoptosis, fibrosis, and hypoxic injury. It is not clear whether omega-3 fatty acids (O-3 FAs), which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles, affect nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether O-3 FAs affect Nrf2 expression and exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-fibrotic effects in CsA-induced nephropathy.
Methods
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, CsA-treated, and CsA-treated with O-3 FA groups. Nrf2 expression was measured by Western blots and immunohistochemical staining.
Results
Kidney function was impaired in the CsA-treated rats compared to the controls. Caspase-3 and caspase-7 were activated in the CsA-treated group, and the Bax/Bcl2 ratio was higher. O-3 FAs attenuated these apoptosis-related changes. ED-1 and inhibition of kappa B (IĸB) protein expression were significantly upregulated in the CsA-treated group. Compared to the control group, O-3 FA supplementation attenuated the increased expression of ED-1 and IĸB related to inflammation. Smad2/3, Smad4, and transforming growth factor-β1 were activated in the CsA group, and O-3 FA treatment prevented these changes related to renal fibrosis. The expression of Nrf2 was reduced in CsA-treated rats, but Nrf-2 was increased by O-3 FA treatment.
Conclusions
We suggest that Nrf2 is a potential mediator induced by O-3 FA supplementation and that it attenuates pro-inflammatory pathways, fibrotic processes, and apoptosis. Further studies are needed to elucidate the crosstalk between Nrf2 expression and signals related to O-3 FA treatment.

Citations

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  • Omega-3 fatty acids: promising therapeutic agents for combating kidney injuries
    Hee-Jae Cha
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(3): 157.     CrossRef
Review article
Polycystic liver disease: an overview of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment
Joonho Jeong, Hyun Joon Park
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(2):75-86.   Published online June 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.128
  • 1,825 View
  • 66 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a hereditary disease characterized by the presence of 20 or more liver cysts. It is classified into three types: isolated autosomal dominant PLD, PLD with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and PLD with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Genetic alterations, ciliary dysfunction of the biliary epithelial cells, and aberrant cell signaling pathways are the main factors contributing to the pathophysiology of PLD; however, other complicated mechanisms are also involved. The Gigot and Schnelldorfer classifications are widely used in clinical practice. Most patients with PLD are asymptomatic; however, a few patients with advanced-stage disease may develop symptoms and complications that impair their quality of life and require treatment. The known treatment options for PLD are somatostatin analogues, aspiration with sclerotherapy, fenestration, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation. Although liver transplantation remains the only curative treatment for PLD, medical therapies are gradually being developed with the increasing knowledge of the disease’s pathophysiology. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations and diagnosis of PLD, as well as treatment strategies, to support clinicians regarding the clinical management of the disease.

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  • Predicting Safe Liver Resection Volume for Major Hepatectomy Using Artificial Intelligence
    Chol Min Kang, Hyung June Ku, Hyung Hwan Moon, Seong-Eun Kim, Ji Hoon Jo, Young Il Choi, Dong Hoon Shin
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(2): 381.     CrossRef
Original articles
Dietary education may reduce blood cadmium and mercury levels in chronic kidney disease patients with higher blood cadmium and mercury levels
Su Mi Lee, Young-Seoub Hong, Byoung-Gwon Kim, Jung-Yeon Kwon, Yongsoon Park, Seong Eun Kim, Won Suk An
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(2):107-116.   Published online May 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.101
  • 1,514 View
  • 34 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Exposure to cadmium and mercury is associated with renal dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the possible ability of dietary education to decrease blood cadmium and mercury levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods
Twenty-seven patients with CKD were enrolled in this prospective, single-arm pilot study. Patients with blood cadmium levels ≥1.4 μg/L were instructed to reduce their intake of shellfish, while those with blood mercury levels ≥5.0 μg/L were asked to reduce their intake of externally blue-colored fish.
Results
Seven dialysis patients and 15 pre-dialysis patients completed the study. Compared with baseline, the blood cadmium (2.0±0.7 μg/L vs. 1.8±0.7 μg/L, p=0.031) and mercury levels (4.4±2.6 μg/L vs. 3.5±1.9 μg/L, p=0.005) after 1 year significantly decreased, although the dietary intake was not significantly different in patients with blood cadmium levels ≥1.4 μg/L and blood mercury levels ≥5.0 μg/L. In pre-dialysis patients, kidney function worsened after 1 year compared with that at baseline despite the reduction in blood cadmium and mercury levels.
Conclusions
Reduction of food intake containing cadmium and mercury may lower the blood cadmium and mercury levels in CKD patients with higher cadmium and mercury levels. Higher blood cadmium levels may cause renal disease progression in pre-dialysis patients, and further studies are necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms.

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  • Impact of dietary education on blood cadmium and mercury levels in chronic kidney disease: a path to renal health improvement
    Ho Sik Shin
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(2): 73.     CrossRef
Revascularization of immature retinas with retinopathy of prematurity using combination therapy of deferred laser treatment after a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection
Ju Seouk Lee, Ki Yup Nam, Ji Eun Lee, Joo Eun Lee, Sang Joon Lee
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(1):28-35.   Published online March 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.145
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to observe the extent of retinal vascularization in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) who underwent deferred laser treatment (LT) after a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB).
Methods
This study retrospectively evaluated 40 consecutive eyes in 21 infants who received a single IVB or LT. Deferred LT was performed in cases of ROP recurrence after a single IVB. To assess the amount of retinal vascularization between the initial IVB and deferred LT, the cases were divided into three groups based on treatment: single IVB, deferred LT after a single IVB, and prompt LT. The growth and associated complications were compared between groups.
Results
There were 12, 16, and 12 eyes in the single IVB, deferred LT, and prompt LT groups, respectively. Deferred LT was performed at an average of 7.9 weeks after a single IVB. In the single IVB group, retinal vascularization proceeded to zone III, whereas the prompt LT group did not show any growth of vascularization beyond the laser scars. In the deferred LT group, during the window period before LT, retinal vascularization progressed from zone I to zone II posterior and from zone II posterior to zone II anterior, respectively, without further ROP recurrence.
Conclusions
Retinal vascularization progressed during the deferred window period, thereby reducing the area of the retina ablated by LT. A single IVB followed by deferred LT can be an alternative treatment option to prevent ablation of zone I or multiple IVBs.

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  • What is the effect of deferred laser treatment on reactivated retinopathy of prematurity after anti-VEGF injection?
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    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(1): 1.     CrossRef
Review article
Future directions of online learning environment design at medical schools: a transition towards a post-pandemic context
Sejin Kim
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(1):12-20.   Published online March 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.110
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had an extremely large impact on methods of teaching and learning, and the need for online learning has grown enormously during the COVID-19 pandemic. Because most professors and students adjusted their mode of teaching and learning to this new context, online learning seemed to be going well. The problem is that distance learning was abruptly adopted as an alternative method of classroom instruction. To increase the effectiveness of online learning, more consideration is needed to explore future directions of creating learning environments. Therefore, this study suggests seven design guidelines for designing learning environments at medical schools based on a theoretical background and experiences from the pandemic. Constructivism and situated learning theory are introduced as the theoretical background for learning environment design, and the basic principles of learning environment design with the paradigm shift to learner-centered classrooms and experiences using EdTech, including HyFlex learning, flipped learning, learning management systems, and interactive learning tools, were used to develop the design guidelines. Each design guideline is strategically matched with the basic principles: learner-centeredness, real-world tasks and contexts, problem-solving, new roles of professors as facilitators or tutors, collaboration, and new perspectives of evaluation and assessment.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Do we need Moodle in medical education? A review of its impact and utility
    Seri Jeong, Hyunyong Hwang
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(3): 159.     CrossRef

KMJ : Kosin Medical Journal